Every year, we see numerous new products and most of them are developed from old technologies. Several countries produced many influential scientists who completely changed the world by their inventions. Few scientists gave their theories on their name which are still used in technology development in major areas. The world has changed a lot in the last few years and we always depend on a few theories for development in future. The following list contains the laws of technology that changed the world with their impact and applications in the technological world.
9. Pythagorean Theorem
History: The Pythagorean theorem was given and first solved by the great Greek mathematician, Pythagoras. Now this theorem has numerous proofs. Still, there is no evidence whether the Pythagorean theorem was discovered at once or many times by different scientists at different places.
Meaning: It states that the square of the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle is equal to the sum of squares of the other two sides.
Application: The Pythagorean theorem is regarded as the base of the trigonometry. It also has a major application in GPS navigation system to accurately survey and making maps.
8. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
History: The fundamental theorem of calculus based on the differentiation and integration. The first proof of the fundamental theorem was published by James Gregory and Isaac Barry. The present version of calculus was given by the Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz.
Meaning: It is a theorem that interlinks the concept of differentiation and integration. It also allows any calculations that have an instantaneous rate of change.
Application: This theorem has a wide practical application in the field of medicine, economics and computer science. It is used in every equation where an optimal solution is required.
7. Logistic Model
History: The logistic function curve was given by Pierre Francois Verhulst in 1844. In the initial stage, the graph is almost exponential and after saturation, growth stops.
Meaning: It is also known as S-shaped curve whose value lies between positive and negative infinity. In its equation, e represents the natural logarithmic number.
Application: It has a wide area of applications in biology, ecology, artificial neural network, probability, statistics, Biomathematics and many more. This model is also used in forecasting the weather.
6. Shannon Theorem of Information
History: The Shannon’s Information Theorem was published in 1948 by Claude Shannon, an engineer at the Bell Lab. This theory completely changed the way of communication over long distances.
Meaning: Shannon’s Information Theorem estimates the maximum rate at which information can be transferred in the presence of noise. It is a sub-branch of applied mathematics which involves the signal processing operations.
Application: Now this theorem is widely used in lossy and lossless data compression, Bioinformatics, music editing and information retrieval. It has a major impact on the success and development of the internet, CD, mobile phones and several space exploration missions.
5. Maxwell’s Theorems
History: Michael Faraday, Carl F. Gauss and Marie Ampere gave three different laws on the connection between electricity and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell translated these laws into expressions and interrelate them.
Meaning: All the four equations of Maxwell show the relationship between electric and magnetic field.
Application: These equations have a large impact to understand the nature of electromagnetic waves and other technologies. Now these are mostly used in television, radar and modern communication system.
4. The Fourier Transform
History: The Fourier transform was named after his discoverer, Joseph Fourier. He extended the equation of Fourier transform from heat flow and wave equation.
Meaning: It is commonly used to transform a time based signal to the frequency based signal. This law defines the signal patterns in time as a function of frequency.
Application: It has many applications in physics, engineering, quantum mechanics and digital signal processing.
3. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
History: The theory of relativity was discovered by Albert Einstein. It is divided into general and special relativity theory. He used many theoretical results in his theory, obtained by Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincare and Albert Michelson.
Meaning: It states that the energy released by any object is equal to the product of the mass of the object and square of the speed of light.
Application: It is considered as the most famous equation ever in history. It is used in many electronics systems; a famous example is Global Positioning System (GPS).
2. Universal Law of Gravitation
History: He used several sources from Johannes Kepler to discover the universal law of gravitation. There are any controversies related to his work including plagiarism of Robert Hooke’s work.
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Meaning: According to the universal law of gravitation, the force acting between two bodies in the universe is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. It calculates the force acting between any two objects in the universe.
Application: This equation is used to defy the power of gravity. It is used in space missions to find the minimum value so they can be energy efficient. It is also used to find the distance at which satellites are placed.
1. Moore’s Law
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History: This law is named after the co-founder of the Intel Corporation, Gordon E. Moore. He makes a prediction in a magazine article in 1965 and now people consider it as a law.
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Meaning: Gordon E. Moore predicted that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit board doubles in every eighteen months. After more than half a century, this law slows down in 2013 and expected it to continue till 2020. It has no equation and represented by a linear graph between year and total number of transistors.
Application: This is an observation law, not a natural law. It helped many corporations to set goals for research and development. Somehow, this law also enhanced the market of electronic gadgets all over the world.