10 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions on Earth

Volcanic eruptions are the result of movement of tectonic plates present inside the earth’s core. As a result of these movements a large amount of the magma is released. It is measured by the volcanic explosive index. All the volcanoes are categorized in three groups i.e. dormant, extinct and active. There are about 1500 active volcanoes in the world. They produce heavy impact on property and human life. Due to the volcanic ash many flights got cancelled and thousands of people forced by the nature to change their home. Here are the 10 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions that shook the world.
Note: Some of the images are not representing the actual volcanic eruption. 

10. Mount Unzen, 1792

Mount Unzen

Mount Unzen is an active volcanic group of stratovolcanoes near the city of Nagasaki. In 1792 it erupted and killed more than 15,000 people and considered as the worst volcanic disaster in Japan. This volcano was most active from 1990-1995 and 1991 eruption killed 43 people including three volcanologists.

9. Mount Vesuvius, AD79

Mount VesuviusImage source: wikimedia

Mount Vesuvius is a stratovolcano in the Gulf of Naples, Italy. It is popular for its eruption in AD 79 in which 18000 people died. The eruption ash and fumes reach up to a height of 20.5 miles, releasing hundred thousand times the energy released in the Hiroshima bombing. It is considered as one of the most volcanoes in the world and it is densely populated volcanic region in the world.

8. Nevado Del Ruiz, 1985

Nevado Del RuizImage source: wikimedia

Nevado Del Ruiz is a volcano located at the border of the Caldas and Tolima in Colombia. On 13th November 1985, a small eruption produced a big lahar that destroyed the whole town of Armero causing an estimated 23,000 deaths. It damaged the property of around US $100 million.

7. Mount Pelee, 1902

Mount PeleeImage source: wikimedia

Mount Pelee is an active volcano in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean. It is famous for its eruption in 1902, is considered the worst disaster of the 20th century. The eruption killed about 30,000 people and only two people alive in the city because they were living on the edge of the city.

6. Krakatoa, 1883

Krakatoa eruptionImage source: wikimedia

Krakatoa is a volcanic island situated between the island of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. In August 1883 there were four gigantic explosions with a force of 10,000 larger than the Hiroshima bombing. The death toll recorded by Dutch authorities was 36,000 but the actual death toll is thought to be much larger.

5. Mount Tambora, 1815

Mount TamboraImage source: wikimedia

Mount Tambora is one of the active volcanoes on one of the islands of Indonesia. This eruption was one of the most powerful in history rated as seven on the Volcanic Explosive Index. All the vegetable crops were destroyed by the poisonous ash and fumes. The total death toll was estimated around 92000 in which 12000 were killed directly by the eruption.

4. Huaynaputina, 1600

HuaynaputinaImage source: redorbit

Huaynaputina is a stratovolcano located in southern Peru. On 19th February 1600 it exploded with Volcanic Explosive Index of 6. It is the largest volcano explosions ever in South America and killed around two million people. It ejected 32 million metric tons sulfur dioxide forming sulfuric acid, which creating a volcanic winter.

3. Minoan Eruption, 1650-1500BC

Minoan EruptionImage source: wikimedia

Minoan Eruption was one of the biggest volcanic eruptions with a Volcanic Explosive Index of 7. It is estimated that it occurred between 1650 and 1500 BC. The eruption destroyed the island of Thera including the Minoan settlements. According to the report, there is no surviving Egyptian record of the eruption.

2. Laki, 1783

LakiImage source: stevengoddard

Laki or Lakagigar is a 1725 meter high volcano located in the south of Iceland. Now it has been dormant since its huge eruption in 1783. It killed over 6 million people around the world, including a million in Japan and the 50% of the livestock population in Iceland. This eruption is rated as 6 on the Volcanic Explosive Index and the lava were estimated to reach a height of 1400 meters with 120 million tonnes of toxic sulfur dioxide.

1. Lake Toba, 77000 Years Ago

Lake Toba - Biggest Volcanic Eruptions

The Toba super eruption is a super volcanic eruption occurred between 69000 and 77000 years ago at the site of Lake Toba. It is considered as the earth’s largest eruption and had an estimated Volcanic Explosive Index of 8. The eruption may have caused this 1000 year of cooler temperature which resulted in a drop of the global surface temperature by 3-5 degree Celsius.

Written by
Varun Kumar

I am a professional technology and business research analyst with more than a decade of experience in the field. My main areas of expertise include software technologies, business strategies, competitive analysis, and staying up-to-date with market trends.

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