16 Famous and Greatest Mathematicians | 2021 Edition

Who are the greatest and most famous mathematicians ever lived? Well, its answer is not easy as mathematics was known to humanity since the prehistoric times, long before the birth of Christ.

The role of mathematics in our lives is immense. Math made it possible to transmit the electricity over thousands of kilometers, helped explore the concept of DNA, gave rise to computers, and it is essential in our quest to understand the universe in more depth.

Without math, scientists can’t develop better medicines, and engineers can’t explore new technologies. The list goes on and on.

Like most things, the mathematics we know today didn’t just randomly came into existence. It takes decades for mathematicians to formulate a new, groundbreaking theorem and equation. So who are these mathematicians? Let’s find out.

16. Srinivasa Ramanujan

Known For: Ramanujan–Petersson conjecture, Ramanujan’s master theorem

Srinivasa Ramanujan was perhaps the most remarkable mathematician in modern India. Although Ramanujan had no formal training, his advanced mathematical knowledge at a very young age left many completely awestruck.

By the age of 16, he was able to study Bernoulli numbers, which he had developed on his own, and calculated the Euler–Mascheroni constant. Before his death at a young age of 32, Ramanujan had successfully assembled almost 4,000 different mathematical identities.

He gained international fame after G. H Hardy, a prominent British mathematician, recognized his work and compared him with the likes of Euler and Jacobi.

15. Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Known For: Lagrangian mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Number Theory

Joseph Lagrange was one of the most notable students of the great Leonhard Euler. Lagrange started his mathematical career with variational calculus (in 1754), which led to the formulation of the Euler–Lagrange equation.

Lagrange reformulated classical mechanics to introduce Lagrangian Mechanics a few years later. His famous work on analytical mechanics (Mécanique analytique) helped researchers develop the field of mathematical physics.

14. Andrew Wiles

Accolades: Wolf Prize (1995/6); Abel Prize (2016)

Sir Andrew John Wiles is a British mathematician most famous for proving Fermat’s Last Theorem, once considered the “most difficult mathematical problem.”

In 1975, under the guidance of John H. Coates, Andrew Wiles started working on Iwasawa theory, which he continued with American mathematician Barry Mazur.

His most significant breakthrough, however, came in the early 1990s, when he proved most of the modularity theorem (formerly the Taniyama–Shimura conjecture). The modularity theorem, in essence, is related to Fermat’s Last Theorem and was enough to prove it.

Mr. Wiles is currently serving as a research professor at the University of Oxford.

13. Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Known For: Jacobi’s elliptic functions; Jacobi transform

Carl Gustav Jacobi was one of the prominent mathematicians of the 19th century. His formulation of the theory of elliptic functions is perhaps his greatest contribution to the field. Jacobi was also instrumental in the studies of differential equations and rational mechanics (Hamilton-Jacobi theory).

Moreover, he made fundamental contributions in the fields of mechanical dynamics and number theory.

12. Alan Turing

Known For: Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, Turing’s proof
Accolades: Smith’s Prize (1936)

During the Second World War, the German intelligence network was considered almost impenetrable. Many allied nations feared that if they cannot intercept important transmissions by the Nazi high command, they might eventually lose the war.

It was Alan Turing, who, with his unprecedented mathematical and cryptanalytic abilities, made significant improvements over the Polish-made bombe and devised a machine that can decode the Enigma faster.

After the end of the war, Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory (U.K), where he designed the Automatic Computing Engine, one of the earliest stored-program computers.

Later in his career, he diverted his attention to theoretical biology. It was during this time that he predicted (mathematically) the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, which was later observed in the 1960s.

Read: 15 Notable Hacker Groups and their Famous Hacks of All Time

11. G.F. Bernhard Riemann

Bernhard Riemann

Known For: Riemann integral, Fourier series

Georg Bernhard Riemann was born in a small village near Dannenberg, Germany. Under the tutelage of Carl Friedrich Gauss, Riemann studied differential geometry and came up with his theory of additional or higher dimensions. His work is now known as Riemannian geometry.

Riemann was heavily influenced by Johann Gustav Dirichlet, who also made an impact on his mathematical career. Only by using the Dirichlet principle, he was able to formulate the famous Riemann mapping theorem.

Some of his mathematical equations were later used by Einstein in his General Relativity theory.

10. Henri Poincaré

Henri PoincaréHenry Poincaré along with Marie Curie at the 1911 Solvay Conference

Known For: Three-body problem, Chaos theory, Poincaré–Hopf theorem

According to Eric Bell, a notable Scottish Mathematician, Henri Poincare was probably one of the last Universalist, as he thrived in almost all known fields of mathematics at that time.

Poincare, during his lifetime, contributed numerous theories in fields of mathematical physics, applied mathematics, and astronomy. He was instrumental in the formulation of the theory of Special Relativity.

Moreover, his exceptional works on Lorentz transformation and the Three-body problem paved the way for mathematicians as well as astrophysicists to make discoveries about our planet and outer space.

His theoretical works even inspired famous artists such as Picasso and Braque, to establish an art movement (Cubism) in the 20th century.

9. David Hilbert

David HilbertDavid Hilbert in his Göttingen home | Image Courtesy: idw-online.de

Known For: Proof theory, Hilbert’s problems

David Hilbert was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. He was instrumental in developing fundamental theories in the field of commutative algebra, calculus of variations, and mathematical physics.

Hilbert’s problems (a set of twenty-three mathematical problems, which he published in 1900) influenced groundbreaking studies in different fields of mathematics. Some of those problems remain unsolved to this date.

In his later days, David Hilbert devoted himself to physics. It was during this time he competed against Albert Einstein on general relativity.

8. Fibonacci

Known For: Fibonacci numbers

Fibonacci, also known as Leonardo of Pisa, was one of the most accomplished mathematicians of the high middle ages.

Perhaps his most significant contribution to the subject is Liber Abaci, a personal book, through which he popularized the Indo-Arabic numeral system (0,1,2,3,4..) and the Fibonacci sequence in Europe.

Today, the sequence is used in computer algorithms and databases.

7. Bernoulli Family

In the world of mathematics, the Bernoulli family holds the highest place. Originally from Antwerp (Belgium), Jacob and his brother Johann Bernoulli were the first mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

Both Jacob and Johann worked together on infinitesimal calculus and are credited for theorems and justifications such as Bernoulli numbers and Brachistochrone curve.

Daniel Bernoulli, Jacob’s son, was one of the most prominent members of this family. His most acclaimed work, the Bernoulli’s principle, mathematically explains the workings of a carburetor and an airplane wing. He also made substantial contributions to the fields of probability and statistics.

6. Pythagoras

PythagorasPythagoras (writing a book) depicted by Raphael’s fresco The School of Athens

Known For: Pythagorean theorem, Theory of Proportions

Pythagoras of Samos was born around 570 BC, and like most ancient Greeks, not much is known about his early life. As a philosopher, his works influenced the likes of Plato and Aristotle, as well as Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton.

Although its authenticity remains debatable, many mathematical findings are attributed to Pythagoras. Perhaps the most famous of them is the Pythagoras theorem (named after him). Many historians have, however, stated the theorem was known by the Babylonians well before the time of Pythagoras.

He may have also been responsible for discovering the Theory of Proportions.

5. Carl Friedrich Gauss

Accolades: Lalande Prize (1809), Copley Medal (1838)

Carl Friedrich Gauss was perhaps the most influential mathematician since the Ancient Greeks. His contributions in various fields of mathematics and physics are almost second to none. Gauss started showing signs of brilliance at an early age of seven when he could solve arithmetic progressions much faster than anyone in his class.

Some of his famous works include Gauss’ Law and Theorema Egregium, which concluded that the Earth could not be displayed on a map without some distortion. He was the first to speculate the possibility of non-Euclidean geometry, although his works were never published.

4. Issac Newton

Known For: Newton’s Laws of Motion, Calculus, Newtonian Mechanics

Sir Issac Newton is one of the founding fathers of classical mechanics, as well as infinitesimal calculus. His views on gravity remained universally accepted until Einstein’s theory of relativity.

Newton’s most remarkable contribution to mathematics is calculus (then called infinitesimals), which he developed independently of his contemporary Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

It was Newton who first explained the reason behind tidal disturbances on Earth and helped validate Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. His works on optics gave us the first-ever refracting telescope.

3. Leonhard Euler

Leonhard EulerA portrait of Leonhard Euler by Jakob Emanuel Handmann

Known For: Euler’s conjectures, Euler’s equations, Euler’s numbers

In a tribute to Leonhard Euler’s contributions toward mathematics, Pierre-Simon Laplace, a notable French astronomer, and mathematician, wrote, “Read Euler, read him again and again, he is the master of us all.”

Mathematicians today hold Euler in the highest regard and consider him the most influential and greatest mathematicians of the 18th century.

Euler made significant contributions to almost every major field in mathematics, including algebra, trigonometry, and geometry. In physics, his works on fluid dynamics and Fourier series is unmatched.

Read: 10 Fun Math Games That Will Make You Smarter

2. Archimedes

Archimedes

Known For: Archimedes’ principle; Hydrostatics

Born in around 287 BC, in Syracuse, Sicily, Archimedes was well versed in mathematics, physics, and astronomy of that time. He was a polymath. However, most of his literary works have not survived.

Archimedes was one of the pioneers of geometry, who derived formulas for the area of a circle, volume, and surface area of a sphere. His method of determining the value of pi remained unchallenged and the only known way to calculate the circumference of a circle for decades.

The Fields Medal, the highest honor in the field of mathematics, carries a portrait of (right facing) Archimedes along with a quote attributed to him.

“Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri” — Rise above oneself and grasp the world.

1. Euclid

Known For: Euclidean geometry; Euclidean algorithm

Euclid of Alexandria was a Greek mathematician who is widely regarded as the founder of geometry. Euclid’s Elements, a compilation of 13 books, is considered to be one of the oldest and most influential books on mathematics.

Although geometry (which is now known as the Euclidean geometry) is the focal point in Euclid’s Elements, it also features a comprehensive introduction of the elementary number theory. His works on optics have also been widely acknowledged.

Read: 15 Scientists That Were Not Rewarded Fairly For Their Contribution

Euclid’s systematic approach in his work — starting from axioms and then logically obtaining complex results, has influenced some of the greatest minds of later generations. Newton’s Principia Mathematica is a perfect example of it.

Written by
Varun Kumar

Varun Kumar is a professional science and technology journalist and a big fan of AI, machines, and space exploration. He received a Master's degree in computer science from GGSIPU University. To find out about his latest projects, feel free to directly email him at [email protected] 

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12 comments
    • Where have you been living…, ? under a rock perhaps?
      Einstein was “…outted…” decades ago as a plagiaristic Jew and used by the Jew World Order to make Jews look smarter than everyone else…
      Jews control the mass media and therefore use it to convince the masses that theya re the victims, when in fact they are the criminals.

      • Einstein was incapable to graduate his high school and he did not ‘sparked’ at all in all schools he started an didn’t graduate, but he knew to cheat. The preliminaries of his theory of relativity he co-authored in Germany was published as ‘original’ in U, and his friend’s name and contribution to this theory was forgotten. The theory itself is practically impracticable and founded an ‘relative’ truths that only Ein Stein and a lot of other rock-heads could verify; as for example: the parallel lines meet in infinite or the straight line light cubs when passing near a star, a planet or other celestial body. This is the Judaic conspiration in science. Newton’s gravitational line will never curb.

  • Please search the basics, where does Algebra come from
    Geometry
    Trigonometry
    Who provided Zero to the western world

    They were Muslims. I know you don’t like it. But sorry mate you can’t change the fact. If you are not bias and a writer to teach others instead of promoting your thoughts you would do research.

    Kid, your article is written well but you need to research before writing.

  • Ahem … Where the hell is Cauchy? Where are Leibnitz and Pascal? Why is Pythagoras here instead of Diophantus? Where the hell is Kurt Goedel?

    I’d have thought that Cauchy, Riemann, Euler, Gauss, and Newton would form the top 5, not necessarily in that order …

  • This is a complete nonsense. How could a unknown “Srinivasa Ramanujan” be in the ranking while neither Galois nor Abel is ?

  • Hi, Mr VARUN, w/ all due respect [since it is your opinion; nevertheless…] concerning your List (contents; or, personalities that are not in the List; or, are not to be included bit is/are in the List) & sequence about your 16 Greatest Mathematicians – I’m sorry but I disagree w/ you in the context of application coverage significance (say in: improving, advancing the mathematical technique principle, theorem, etc., ; historical value, depth, & breadth. Also, kindly we MUST specify: there are 2 Types of Mathematicians: Pure Mathematicians & Applied Mathematicians… [If I am student of mathematics who values the works of mathematicians in history, the, I would only be confused …. I appreciate you efforts, anyway; but pls consider those students of mathematics in weighing the facts & truth of their (mathematicians’) contributions in history of mathematics: pure mathematics…; or, applied mathematics.

  • Mulatu Lemma is also one of the top mathematician discovering the Mulatu Numbers.
    Google read about this mathematician.

  • Hi, Bro. Varun KUMAR, peace be you & safe good health wish for you from me & w/ prayers ‘from’ our One Absolute Original 1st & Last Parental GOD. Now,

    Re: Of your Article here – w/ & by all respect, I’m sorry but, I re-constructively do not agree: both in names & sequencing. Pls remember your “central theme is: ‘The Famous & Greatest Mathematicians’ … [More so if – as always it is: after ‘Mathematicians’, usually suffixed – ‘of All Time’]. Why I don’t agree – “re-constructively” – Well, 1stly: How I wish you’re gifted by/allowed by GOD to “enter” the Spirit World & be able to see, talk to each of the mathematicians you enlisted & the sequencing [numerically] you assigned to each & ASK in silent using your heart & mind [don’t speak using voicing physically, etc., it won’t work]; USE Heart & purity of your purpose, while looking at each straight to the eyes: Speak using your Heart * Mind; of course pray 1st to GOD & ask humbly His Permission; Ask “all possible questions” about the ‘history of mathematics and mathematicians strictly & strictly living are existing & living (respectively) in their own time – you will be BOTH amazed & disappointed about your expectations: How come..?

    1. Suggestion only & Clue – OBJECTIVELY:
    Pls in final writing off after your review, back to your 16 Greatest & Famous Mathematicians; pls from their respective time to present: kindly CONSIDER the following A. Breadth, B. Depth, and C. Historical Significance: (in the context their respective Mathematical Contribution as to its “application importance” both in theory and practice, from their time to the present contextual applicative coverage to scope of the current level of mathematical development & advancement history stage ‘where we are NOW’.

    2. Bear in mind: there are two (2) Major Categories of Mathematicians: A. Pure Mathematicians and B. Applied mathematicians. Again, based on [breadth, depth, and historical significance], if your mathematician chosen is “not only “Pure Mathematician” but is also “Applied Mathematician” w/ equally & more so & yes, more so highly regarded as his ‘application mathematical contribution’ is practically universal, of great impact to natural sciences/applied sciences & engineering! Then, that’s another ADDED Credit Points.

    For Example(s). David Hilbert and Carl F Gauss and Albert Einstein are “admiring fans” of GF Bernhard Riemann; yet Riemann’s mathematical contribution(s) are so vast covering wide range of ‘applied/natural sciences & even to engineering & medical technology sciences – Today! and even James Clerk Maxwell (1 greatest applied mathematician and 1 greatest mathematical scientist of all time had his famous Electro-Magnetic Theory (EMT) Equations did/do PROVE in yet only 1 most amazing natural mathematical proof available thus far – as when it is used upon/ in Modern Applied Medical Science to Human Health Parameter(s) Determination involving: Energy, Frequency & Resonance! as to have provided Application Specimen of Proof to & that this Riemann’s Hypothesis is TRUE – yes, it’s TRUE and Accurate Mathematical (not Theory & not just Hypothesis but) a Riemannian Principle of Most Advanced Mathematical Theorem yet w/ the greatest impact & application [in terms of
    breadth, depth, and historical importance] to both “Pure Number Principle, Prime Number System Theorem, and others, in addition to its (“Riemann Hypothesis’s”) application Medical Sciences of Today’s 21st Century!

    Also, GF Bernhard Riemann’s Mathematical Works are [esp. Riemann’s Non Euclidean Geometry (NEG) encompasses/embraces & even extends beyond via Vector Duality Matrix Field (Group) Principle of Mathematics! the NEG of Gauss [C,F. Gauss, one greatest mathematician of all time w/ equally famous greatest mathematician of all time Leonard Euler!) upon knowing Riemann’s NEG in 1854, left his own NEG System & so excited before a distinguished mathematical physicist, W.E. Weber in attendance right after Riemann’s New & Higher Dimensional NEG Lecture 1854, & Gauss, clasping his hands! finding in Riemann his student: “my hero!” & did spend the rest of his remaining lifetime on Earth studying Riemann’s NEG till he died on 23 February, 1855. NEXT –

    3. Consider the greatest specifics of mathematical significance of their mathematical works in Number System, in Proofs of Number Theorems, and so on,, so vast & equally of practical application values of their works: the Triumvirate Pillars of Modern Mathematics w/ Riemann: Isaac Newton, C. F. Gauss & Leonard Euler, far greater than Euclid’s Work ‘despite’ that whose mathematics did some impact “bases in mathematical proof theorems” [of geometry approach] some 23 centuries later in his life (he died ‘mid-3rd century’ approx.)] because, after Isaac Newton [wow! 1 of the most Important (few) Applied Mathematicians of all time & equally 1 greatest mathematical physicist of all time (he died 31 March, 1727 ], it is discovered in Science Community Authority that “Euclid Elements” or, Euclidean Geometry can Hardly HOLD True & can HARDLY Fit In the complex mathematical laws of “Natural Phenomena” – any more; but not Riemann NEG! Wow – a very complex COOL Truth of Nature’s Laws!
    Yes, Wow! It is Albert Einstein who 1st sensed & did apply & [he is correct!] Riemann’s Geometry [NEG] to his [Einstein’s most famous (one of the most famous mathematical field natural science applications!)] General Relativity, 1915 AD.! And other proof examples … we have these open to all in our History of Mathematicians; History of Applied Natural Mathematical Sciences and History of (Individual) Mathematician’s Life, provided by Authorities on the Subject – your Title-Subject. Thank you. Gpw_BBR